Science for systems, Band 57
Hrsg.: Fraunhofer IAF, Freiburg
2022, 198 S., num., mostly col. illus. and tab., Softcover
The processing of weak electromagnetic signals at radio frequencies demands for extremely low noise amplifiers (LNAs). InGaAs high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) provide state-of-the-art noise performance. Still, they need to be cryogenically cooled to fulfill the noise requirements of applications such as radio-astronomy or quantum bit read-out. Future cryogenic systems will need to increase the number of LNAs to enhance their performance, which demands for a reduction of the LNA size, power consumption, and noise.
This work describes the characterization, modeling, and optimization of HEMTs for cryogenic ultra-low noise amplification. A novel scalable and temperature dependent HEMT model is proposed, which allows for circuit and technology optimizations. Several HEMT technologies are investigated and an optimized version for cryogenic ultra-low-noise amplification is provided. Combining the accurate model data with the optimized technology allows to design LNAs optimized for cryogenic use. As a result, a monolithic 4 – 8 GHz LNA with low footprint, low power consumption, and a noise temperature of 3.6 K is demonstrated, which sets the state of the art among monolithic LNAs.